Battery-Swapping for Heavy Duty Vehicles. A Feasibility Study on Up-Scaling in Sweden

The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI) has published a report on battery-swapping. The report was funded by the Swedish Energy Agency.

Download the full report


The report focuses on the commercial feasibility of a battery-swapping system for heavy trucks in
Sweden. By studying business models, the compatibility with Swedish regulations, and integration
into transport operations, we explore how disruptive technologies, ecosystem effects, and circularity
could enable a rapid introduction and diffusion of a battery-swapping system. A special focus is on
China, covering the status of battery-swapping there and analysing the processes that have led to its
rapid development and deployment. In China, battery-swapping creates a new business model where
actors from energy production, battery manufacturing, and the mechanical industry spearhead the
development and diffusion of the technology. Battery-swapping is now the dominant technology for
electric trucks in China.

Advantages of battery-swapping include: only a few minutes battery swap time, reduced investment
for truck owners, low impact on the local power grid, and separation of vehicle and battery life cycles.
A simulation study in this report shows that battery-swapping for heavy trucks in harbour operations
could offer clear advantages compared to cable charging.

However, there are several challenges to introducing battery-swapping in Sweden. First, it has no clear
promoters in the industry. Swedish and European vehicle manufacturers are hesitant because it
challenges their current business model, and that they may instead take the role of gatekeeper. Second,
current standards and regulatory frameworks for vehicles and energy systems in Sweden and in the
European Union do not include battery-swapping.

The report also addresses the need for knowledge and training of people at battery-swapping stations,
and the importance of social sustainability in the electrification of heavy vehicle transport operations.


VTI, Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut/
Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI)


The Swedish Energy Agency